Volume 13, Issue 4 (Journal of Control, V.13, N.4 Winter 2020)                   JoC 2020, 13(4): 65-75 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ehsanian M, Moradi M. Design of robust carrier tracking systems in high dynamic and high noise conditions, with emphasis on neuro-fuzzy controller. JoC. 2020; 13 (4) :65-75
URL: http://joc.kntu.ac.ir/article-1-616-en.html
1- Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University
Abstract:   (3103 Views)
The robust carrier tracking is defined as the ability of a receiver to determine the phase and frequency of the input carrier signal in unusual conditions such as signal loss, input signal fading, high receiver dynamic, or other destructive effects of propagation. An implementation of tight tracking can be understood in terms of adopting a very narrow loop bandwidth that contradict with the requirements for tracking high user dynamics. Such a trade-off becomes the critical point and the main limitation of robust carrier tracking, since both noise rejection (and equivalently, recovery of the lost signal power) and agile carrier tracking must be appropriately balanced to avoid penalizing the performance criteria of the specific application under analysis. In practice, bandwidth must be adaptive so that with respect to input noise and dynamic values, optimal bandwidth could be chosen. In this article, first different carrier tracking systems is reviewed and their related features and applications are studied and determined. Then, with comparing existing methods it is shown that, the proposed intelligent type-2 neuro-fuzzy controllers in tracking system provide results that are more acceptable than others because of overcoming the uncertainties in the received carrier signal and environmental conditions. 
Full-Text [PDF 1072 kb]   (942 Downloads)    
Type of Article: Research paper | Subject: Special
Received: 2018/09/11 | Accepted: 2019/06/16 | Published: 2020/01/30

1. J. Laskar, B. Matinpour, and S. Chakraborty, Modern receiver frontends, John Wiley & Sons, New York, United states, 2004. [DOI:10.1002/0471474851]
2. T. E. Humphreys, M. L. Psiaki, and P. M. Kintner, "Modeling theeffects of ionospheric scintillation on GPS carrier phase tracking," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1624-1637, October 2010. [DOI:10.1109/TAES.2010.5595583]
3. Z. Ghebretensa'e, J. Harmatos, and K. Gustafsson, "Mobile broadbandbackhaul network migration from TDM to carrier Ethernet," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 102-109, October 2010. [DOI:10.1109/MCOM.2010.5594684]
4. M. Paonni, M. Anghileri, D. Fontanella, and B. Eissfeller, "Quasi-pilotsignals: improving sensitivity and TTFF without compromise," in Proc.ION GNSS, 20-23 September 2011.
5. J. T. Curran, G. Lachapelle, and C. C. Murphy, "Improving the designof frequency lock loops for GNSS receivers," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 850-868, January 2012. [DOI:10.1109/TAES.2012.6129674]
6. J. T. Curran, G. Lachapelle, and C. C. Murphy, "An SNR dependent model for the CDMA FLL," IEEE Trans.Signal Process., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 1522-1527, March 2012. [DOI:10.1109/TSP.2011.2178840]
7. P. Roncagliolo and J. Garcia, "High dynamics and false lock resistantGNSS carrier tracking loops," in Proc. ION GNSS, 25-28 September 2007, pp. 2364-2375.
8. R. Roncagliolo, J. Garcia, and C. Muravchik, "Pull-out probabilityconsiderations in high dynamics GNSS tracking loops," in Proc. InternationalSymposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications(ISSTA), pp. 58-62, 25-28 August 2008. [DOI:10.1109/ISSSTA.2008.17]
9. L. Zhang, Y. Morton, F. van Graas, and T. Beach, "Characterizationof GNSS signal parameters under ionosphere scintillation conditions using software-based tracking algorithms," in Proc. IEEE PositionLocation and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), pp264-275, 4-6 May 2010. [DOI:10.1109/PLANS.2010.5507209]
10. F. Legrand, C. Macabiau, J. Issler, L. Lestarquit, and C. Mehlen,"Improvement of pseudorange measurements accuracy by using fast adaptive bandwidth lock loops," in Proc. ION GPS, , pp. 2346-2356, 19-22 September 2000.
11. S. Skone, G. Lachapelle, D. Yao, W. Yu, and R. Watson, "Investigatingthe impact of ionospheric scintillation using a GPS software receiver," in Proc. ION GNSS, pp. 1126-1137, 13-16 September 2005.
12. F. A. Khan, A. G. Dempster, and C. Rizos, "Projected bandwidth loop -an alternative to adaptive bandwidth loops with reduced complexity," inProc. IEEE Symposium on Position, Location and Navigation (PLANS), pp. 1147-1153, May 2010. [DOI:10.1109/PLANS.2010.5507233]
13. D. Simon and H. El-Sherief, "Fuzzy logic for digital phase-locked loopfilter design," IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 211-218, May1995. [DOI:10.1109/91.388174]
14. W.-L. Mao, H.-W. Tsao, and F.-R. Chang, "Intelligent GPS receiverfor robust carrier phase trackig in kinematic environments," IEE Radar, Sonar and Navigation Proceedings, vol. 151, no. 3, pp. 171-180, June2004. [DOI:10.1049/ip-rsn:20040188]
15. W.-L. Mao and A.-B. Chen, "Mobile GPS carrier phase tracking usinga novel intelligent dual-loop receiver," International Journal of SatelliteCommunications and Networking, vol. 26, pp. 119-139, 2008. [DOI:10.1002/sat.898]
16. P. Lian, "Improving tracking performance of PLL in high dynamicapplications," Master's thesis, Dept. of Geomatics Engineering, Universityof Calgary, 2004.
17. D. Polk and S. Gupta, "Quasi-optimum digital phase-locked loops," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 75-82, January 1973. [DOI:10.1109/TCOM.1973.1091531]
18. A. Patapoutian, "On phase-locked loops and Kalman filters," IEEETrans. Commun. vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 670-672, May 1999. [DOI:10.1109/26.768758]
19. B. D. O. Anderson and J. B. Moore, Optimal filtering. Prentice-Hall, 1979, reprint: Dover Publications, 2005.
20. F. R. Castella, "An adaptive two-dimensional Kalman tracking filter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 822-829, November 1980. [DOI:10.1109/TAES.1980.309006]
21. S. Hinedi, "An extended Kalman filter based automatic frequencycontrol loop," Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Tech. Rep., 1988.
22. Y. Zhang, M. G. Amin, and F. Ahmad, "Application of time-frequencyanalysis and Kalman filter to range estimation of targets in enclosed structures," Proc. IEEE Radar Conference, pp.1-4, 26-30 May 2008. [DOI:10.1109/RADAR.2008.4720727]
23. H. Sorenson, Kalman filtering. Theory and applications. Los-Alamitos, CA: IEEE Press, 1985.
24. S. M. Kay, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing. EstimationTheory, Vol.1, Prentice Hall, 1993.
25. J.-H. Won, D. D¨otterb¨ock, and B. Eissfeller, "Performance comparisonof different forms of Kalman filter approach for a vector-based GNSS signal tracking loop," Navigation, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 185-199, 2010. [DOI:10.1002/j.2161-4296.2010.tb01777.x]
26. S. Han, W. Wang, X. Chen, and W. Meng, "Design and capability analyze of high dynamic carrier tracking loop based on UKF," in Proc. ION GNSS, pp. 1960-1966, 21-24 September 2010.
27. P. K. Dash, S. Hasan, and B. K. Panigrahi, "Adaptive complex unscented Kalman filter for frequency estimation of time-varying signals," IET Science, Measurement and Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 93-103, 2010. [DOI:10.1049/iet-smt.2009.0003]
28. I. Arasaratnam, S. Haykin, and T. R. Hurd, "Cubature Kalman filtering for continuous-discrete systems: theory and simulations," IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 4977-4993, October 2010. [DOI:10.1109/TSP.2010.2056923]
29. H. Zhang, P. Pan, and Y. Zhang, "Two-step particle-filter-based AFC for LEO satellite receiver with impulsive noise," in Proc. International Conference on Information Engineering (ICIE), 2010. [DOI:10.1109/ICIE.2010.320]
30. Y. Chen, J. Juang, and T. Kao, "Robust GNSS signal tracking against scintillation effects: a particle filter-based software receiver approach," in Proc. ION ITM, pp. 627-635, 25-27 January 2010.
31. C. G. Lopes, E. H. Satorius, P. Estabrook, and A. H. Sayed, "Adaptive carrier tracking for Mars to Earth communications during entry, descent and landing," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1865-1879, October 2010. [DOI:10.1109/TAES.2010.5595600]
32. S. Schnelle, J. Slavinsky, P. Boufounos, M. Davenport, and R. Baraniuk, "A compressive phase-locked loop," in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), pp. 1-4, 25- 30 March 2012. [DOI:10.1109/ICASSP.2012.6288519]
33. R. Baraniuk, "Compressive sensing," IEEE Signal Processing Mag., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 118-121, July 2007. [DOI:10.1109/MSP.2007.4286571]
34. D. Jim'enez, G. L'opez-Risue˜no, G. Seco-Granados, and A. Garc'ıa, "Innovative techniques for GPS indoor positioning using snapshot receiver," in Proc. ION GNSS, pp. 2944-2955, 26-29 September 2006.
35. D. Borio, L. Camoriano, L. Lo Presti, and M. Fantino, "DTFT-based frequency lock loop for GNSS applications," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 595-612, April 2008. [DOI:10.1109/TAES.2008.4560209]
36. T. Muhammad, L. Lo Presti, and M. Fantino, "A novel quasi-open loop architecture for GNSS carrier recovery systems," International Journal of Navigation and Observation, pp. 1-24, 2012 (In press). [DOI:10.1155/2012/324858]
37. C. Rocken and S. V. Sokolovsky, "Method and system for demodulation of open-loop GPS radio occultation signals," U.S. Patent 7 912 422B2, Mar. 22, 2011.
38. Jos'e A. L'opez-Salcedo, Jos'e A. Del Peral-Rosado, and Gonzalo Seco-Granados, "Survey on Robust Carrier Tracking Techniques", IEEE communications surveys & tutorials, pp. 1-19, 2013.
39. Bibhu Prasad PANDA, "Design and analysis of efficient phase locked loop for fast phase and frequency acquisition", Master of Technology, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela, 2011
40. Jerry J.M. "Uncertain Rule-Based Fuzzy Systems", Introduction and New Directions. Second edition. Los Angeles: Springer International Publishing, 2017.
41. Jerry M. Mendel, Hani Hagras, Woei-Wan Tan, William W. Melek, Hao Ying, "Introduction to type-2 fuzzy logic control," IEEE Press, 2014. [DOI:10.1002/9781118886540]
42. Moradi M, Ehsanian M. "An FPGA based Robust and Intelligent DPLL with Application Customisation Capability", 25th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering, 2017. [DOI:10.1109/IranianCEE.2017.7985499]
43. Wei-Lung Mao, "Applications of new fuzzy inference-based tracking loops for kinematic GPS receiver", Circuits systems signal processing, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 91-113, 2007. [DOI:10.1007/s00034-005-1118-3]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Control

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb